Brazil still lives its worst recession in the last twenty years and the impacts felt by industry, trade and services result in a unemployment rate approaching 20%, taking into account those who are unemployed and looking for jobs, who have jobs with few Weekly hours or those who have already given up the search. The research "unemployment and the search for professional relocation in Brazil", held by the Credit Protection Service (SPC Brazil) and the National Confederation of Shopkeepers (Cndl), investigates the profile of the unemployed, the reasons that led to the Consequences in family life and the measures taken to find new market placement. The study shows that seven out of ten unemployed (68%) are willing to earn less than they received in the last job, especially men (74%) and those belonging to classes C, D and E (70%).
The main justifications in these cases are that what is currently important is to get a job to pay the expenses (29%) and that the importance is to return to the labour market (25%). On the other hand, 32% are not willing to receive less, especially women (36%) and those belonging to classes A and B (44%), the most cited reason being that they face lower wages as professional regression (15%), followed by the possibility of being difficult Return to the salary level he had before (12%).
The survey reveals that, considering those who attended at least one interview since they are unemployed, 50% came to decline some proposal, and 20% did so because the remuneration and/or benefits were insufficient, while 10% Claim that the place was far from home.
The research of SPC Brasil and Cndl shows the following profile of the interviewees: 58% are female, with a mean age equivalent to 35.7 years; 65% have up to full high school, 89% belong to classes C, D and E and 55% have children, and of these 75% have children under 18 years of age.
60% are not being called for job interviews
In general, unemployment is not new to the majority of Brazilians heard in the research: 74% have experienced losing their jobs, especially in the age groups from 35 to 49 years (84%) and above 50 years (79%). On the other hand, 26% guarantee that they have never faced unemployment, increasing to 33% among the youngest. Practically half of the interviewees are unemployed for a period that extends for up to six months (47%), and the average time reaches 12.2.
"Numbers like these have a serious impact on the whole social situation, because fewer people working means retraction in consumption, increased delinquency, negative impacts on families ' standard of living and, in general, widening the recession and worse results For the economy of the country ", explains the president of SPC Brazil, Roque Pellizzaro.
The search for a new place in the labor market is practically unanimous (94%), and 80% are looking for employment today and 14% are using other forms of income while they do not succeed in relocation. Nine out of ten respondents feel prepared to get a new job (93%), and only 3% feel they are not prepared. The predominant optimism stems mainly from the fact that 59% guarantee to possess good professional experience, besides having completed registrations in several employment sites (28%) and because they often read newspapers and visit employment sites to see vacancies Available (24%).
One in five unemployed claims to be seeking professional training to achieve better opportunities (21%), especially the youngest (28%). Among these, the most mentioned areas are languages (9%), business Administration (6%), Computer Technician (5%), Nursing Technician (5%) and aesthetics (5%). Already 75% admit not to be in search of professional qualification.
In any case, even among those seeking to increase their employability, by means of courses and other forms of training, the scenario is not encouraging, since six out of ten interviewees, in general, affirm that they are not being called for interviews of Employment (60%).
87% of the dismissed alleged external motives, largely associated with the economic crisis
Most of the people who have heard it have worked previously (97%) and only 2% guarantee that they have never worked. Considering the last employment, the most usual form of hiring was CLT, with a signed portfolio (59%), followed by informal hiring without registration in the portfolio (13%), temporary hiring (9%) and outsourcing with a signed portfolio (8%).
Considering the previous work experience, five out of ten unemployed were from the service sector (48%), followed by trade (34%), industry (12%) and public sector (5%). In 68% of the cases, the shutdown was done by dismissal, but another 16% guarantee to have resigned and 14% claim that an agreement was made.
Among those who were dismissed, practically nine out of ten (87%) alleged external causes, mainly linked to the current economic crisis, such as cost reduction on the part of the company to deal with the effects of the crisis (43%), decrease in the company's activities, resulting in idle labor (15%) and closing of the company (10%). Only 7% talk about personal motivations, such as results below expected at work (3%) and difficulty in relationship with colleagues and/or chief (2%).
Taking into account only those who resigned, the main reason pointed out is the dissatisfaction with the activities performed in the company (19%), followed by dissatisfaction with the salary (12%) and the desire to change careers and/or area of activity (9%).
Asked about the type of opportunity desired by the unemployed, 51% prefer the posts with a signed wallet, while 32% mention any vacancy, regardless of the format.
59% are confident in getting jobs in the next 3 months
Although the average time in the unemployment condition is equivalent to more than one year, six out of ten interviewees are optimistic about the possibility of finding a job the next 90 days (59%). On average, respondents believe in resolving this situation in the next 4 months.
Taking into account the expectation to get jobs in the next three months, 58% are confident, because they are good professionals and believe that everything will work out. On the other hand, 28% are discouraged, either because they have not seen many vacancies available on the market (21%), either because they are interviewing, but do not get vague (7%).
For Pellizzaro, although many Brazilians feel ready to return to the labor market, the fact is that there seems to be no vacancies available to absorb all this contingent. "The issue is not only the qualification, but the current fragility of the Brazilian economy, which does not offer the necessary conditions for new jobs to be created," he said. "For 2017, the expectation is a better economic scenario than in 2016, but the recovery should become more solid only in the second semester. Thus, the expectation is that the unemployment data still show some worsening in the first half of the year, before demonstrating some breath in the second half of the year ", explains the president.
37% of the unemployed who did not live alone were the main responsible for the livelihood of the house
In addition to investigating the profile and behavior of the unemployed in the search for a relocation, the research deepened the analysis in relation to those who do not live alone to understand the impact of unemployment in the family context. For this, some questions were focused on the unemployed who do not live alone: 35% of them guarantee that there is at least one more person without work in the home where they live. At the same time, 79% of respondents ensure they meet someone close to losing their job or have been forced to close the company in the last three months.
The research also shows that 92% of these unemployed ears contributed financially to the household expenses, with 37% being the main responsible (increasing to 52% among men, 56% in the age group over 50 years and 39% between classes C, D and E) and 55% contributed, but were not the main responsible.
About 17% of the unemployed who live with other people and who contributed with the livelihood of the House claim that the loss of work generated conflicts in the family, mainly disagreements about the expenses of the House (12%) and fights because of money in the time to divide accounts (8%). Already one in five people heard guarantees that unemployment motivated other people in the house, who previously did not work, working even though making nozzles (21%). In more aggravating cases, 4% of these respondents stated that after the loss of employment, some member of the family needed to interrupt the studies to work and help with the expenses.
"The harmful effects of unemployment in the lives of families end up forcing people to seek alternative sources of income. In times of recession and accentuated unemployment, like the country goes through, people are forced to adapt, because even cutting expenses, there are many accounts that need to be paid, "says SPC Brazil president.
For Pellizzaro, it is natural that other members of the family seek ways to obtain income, but the problem is that job opportunities are scarce and the discouragement of entrepreneurs makes few consider offering new jobs: "It is urgently necessary to Reversing this framework – which will go through improving the economy and resuming growth, making entrepreneurs believe in the country again. Moreover, it is necessary that some reforms that help to unlock the economy are approved, with emphasis on pension reform and labor reform, "he concludes.
The research sought to outline the profile of the Brazilian unemployed and the impact on the process of professional relocation in the market. The starting point was the definition of what is a person considered unemployed. Upon the criteria adopted, if the individual is working or has no interest and/or conditions to work at the moment, or even if he is organizing himself to set up his own business and therefore does not seek employment, he was not eligible to respond to the research. On the other hand, if you are looking for a job, or using alternative forms of income while not finding a vacancy, or if you are not seeking employment because you have searched for a long time, without success, and are waiting to see if any opportunity arises, Then you were eligible to respond to the survey.
600 unemployed Brazilians aged over 18 years, of both genders and of all social classes in the 27 capitals were interviewed personally. The general margin of error is 4.0 percentage points for a confidence interval of 95%.